Phrasal verbs are among the worst nightmares for English students, especially those who are thinking about sitting the FCE.
What I usually recommend my students when dealing with phrasal verbs is to try to memorise them by classifying them.
Most of my students write lists of phrasal verbs classifying them by their verb. Something like this:
|look after someone||take care of someone|
|look down on someone||consider someone as inferior|
|look for something||search for something|
|look forward to something||await or anticipate something with pleasure|
|look up to someone||admire someone|
However, there are better methods. As I said elsewhere, using mindmaps is a very useful method to classify and memorise vocabulary. You can organise these mindmaps by verb; like this:
or by particle, like this:
Another interesting classifcation is to organise phrasal verbs by meaning, rather than form. For instance, you can make a group of phrasal verbs that can be used to talk about human relationships, like this:
Another useful tip when trying to memorise phrasal verbs -maybe the best so far, is to make up sentences where these phrasal verbs are used in context. For instance:
|find out||discover||When I found out that my camera had been stolen I went to the police immediately.|
|check in||register into a hotel or airport||Before we can got up to our rooms, we have to check in at the reception.|
|drop out||leave school||John is thinking about dropping out after his bad marks last term.|
|call off||cancel||The meeting has been called off because some people could not attend.|
|count on||rely on||You know you can always count on your family when you are in trouble.|
All in all, I think the best way to learn phrasal verbs is to combine all these methods above and work with the new verbs in an active way (by listing, classifying and using them in context).
As usual, you can find this entry in pdf form here.